Among different techniques based on x-ray nanoimaging, ptychography has become a popular tool to study specimens at nanometer-scale resolution without the need of using high-resolution optics that requires very stringent manufacturing processes. This high-resolution imaging method is compatible with other imaging modalities acquired in scanning microscopy. At the Advance Photon Source (APS), we have developed two fluorescence microscopes for simultaneous ptychography and fluorescence imaging which together provide a powerful technique to study samples in biology, environmental science, and materials science. Combined with different tilted sample projections, such correlative methods can yield high-resolution 3D structural and chemical images. More recent work has been focused on the development of a fast ptychography instrument called the Velociprobe which is built to take advantage of the over 100 times higher coherent flux provided by the coming APS upgrade source. The Velociprobe uses high-bandwidth accurate interferometry and advanced motion controls with fast continuous scanning schemes which are optimized for large-scale samples and 3D high-resolution imaging. This instrument has been demonstrated to obtain sub-10 nm resolution with different high-photon-efficient scanning schemes using fast data acquisition rate up to 3 kHz (currently limited by detector's full continuous frame rate). A ptychographic imaging rate of 100 _m2/second with a sub-20 nm spatial resolution was shown in this paper.
X-ray ptychography has become a standard technique for imaging materials at <10 nanometer spatial resolution. Recent developments have shown its potential in obtaining quantitative images of the 2D/3D structure of large objects at millimeter and centimeter-scale, which requires not only new instrumentation and experiment design, but high-throughput workflow for data processing. At Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source, we imaged an integrated chip with over 600 × 600 µm^2 field of view at sub-20 nm spatial resolution and achieved 3000 Hz data acquisition rate with advanced motion control. Here, we discuss challenges in achieving large-area reconstruction and explore strategies for streamlining data processing. We demonstrate a novel data acquisition scheme that combines the merits of both step scan and (continuous) fly scan. Inaccurate scan position and large beam variation also degrade image quality and need to be corrected during reconstruction.
As a scanning version of coherent diffraction imaging (CDI), X-ray ptychography has become a popular and very successful method for high-resolution quantitative imaging of extended specimens. The requirements of mostly coherent illumination and the scanning mechanism limit the throughput of ptychographic imaging. In this paper, we will introduce the methods we use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to achieve highthroughput ptychography by optimizing the parameters of the illumination beam. One work we have done is increasing the illumination flux by using a double-multilayer monochromator (DMM) optics with about 0.8% bandwidth. Compared with our double-crystal monochromator (DCM) optics with 0.01% bandwidth, this DMM optics provides around 20 times more flux. A multi-wavelength reconstruction method has been implemented to deal with the consequential degraded temporal coherence from such an illumination to ensure high-quality reconstruction. In the other work, we adopt a novel use of at-top focusing optics to generate a at-top beam with the diameter of about 1.5 μm on the focal plane. The better uniformity of the probe and the large beam size allow one to significantly increase the step size in ptychography scans and thereby the imaging efficiency.