In this paper, we report a highly effective relative humidity (RH) sensor implemented on graphene oxide (GO) coated long period grating (LPG). The GO nanocolloides bonded onto a cylindrical fibre cladding enables the LPG with strong evanescent waves to absorb more water molecules increasing its RH sensitivity. In an LPG, the phase matching condition occurs when a forward propagating core mode is coupled with the co-propagating lower order cladding modes generating evanescent waves to interact with the surrounding medium. This unique effect of LPGs can be more enhanced with multilayer GO deposition. There is an expansion of GO film with the absorption of more water molecules as RH increases. The absorption of water molecules on GO coating increases the conducting carrier (holes) density on it, thus decreasing the refractive index of GO film. The combined effect of increasing evanescent waves and modulated refractive index makes the GO coated LPGs as effective RH sensors. Our recently achieved results have shown the RH sensitivity of the GO coated LPG is about 0.01 dB/%RH. We have also investigated the effect on GO layer thickness, showing thicker layer increases the RH response of the LPG cladding mode resonances in lower wavelength region.
Enzyme-functionalized dual-peak long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in 80-μm-cladding B/Ge codoped single-mode fiber is presented for sugar-level and specific glucose detection. Before enzyme functionalization, the dual-peak LPFG was employed for refractive index sensing and sugar-level detection and high sensitivities of ∼4298.20 nm/RIU and 4.6696 nm/% were obtained, respectively. Glucose detection probe was attained by surface functionalization of the dual-peak LPFG via covalent binding with aminopropyl triethoxysilane used as a binding site. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of enzyme. The surface-functionalized dual-peak LPFG was tested with D-(+)-glucose solution of different concentrations. While the peak 2 at the longer wavelength was suitable only to measure lower glucose concentration (0.1 to 1.6 mg/ml) recording a high sensitivity of 12.21±0.19 nm/(mg/ml), the peak 1 at the shorter wavelength was able to measure a wider range of glucose concentrations (0.1 to 3.2 mg/ml) exhibiting a maximum resonance wavelength shift of 7.12±0.12 nm/mg/ml. The enzyme-functionalized dual-peak LPFG has the advantage of direct inscription of highly sensitive grating structures in thin-cladding fibre without etching, and most significantly, its sensitivity improvement of approximately one order of magnitude higher than previously reported LPFG and excessively tilted fibre grating (Ex-TFG) for glucose detection.
In this work, a graphene oxide-coated long period fibre grating (GO-LPG) is proposed for chemical sensing application.
Graphene oxide (GO) has been deposited on the surface of long period grating to form a sensing layer which
significantly enhances the interaction between LPG propagating light and the surrounding-medium. The sensing
mechanism of GO-LPG relies on the change of grating resonance intensity against surrounding-medium refractive index
(SRI). The proposed GO-LPG has been used to measure the concentrations of sugar aqueous solutions. The refractive
index sensitivities with 99.5 dB/RIU in low refractive index region (1.33-1.35) and 320.6 dB/RIU in high index region
(1.42-1.44) have been achieved, showing an enhancement by a factor of 3.2 and 6.8 for low and high index regions,
respectively. The proposed GO-LPG can be further extended to the development of optical biochemical sensor with
advantages of high sensitivity, real-time and label-free sensing.
Due to the limitation of the lens effect of the optical fibre and the inhomogeneity of the laser fluence on different cores, it is still challenging to controllably inscribe different fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) in multicore fibres. In this article, we reported the FBG inscription in four core fibres (FCFs), whose cores are arranged in the corners of a square lattice. By investigating the influence of different inscription conditions during inscription, different results, such as simultaneous inscription of all cores, selectively inscription of individual or two cores, and even double scanning in perpendicular core couples by diagonal, are achieved. The phase mask scanning method, consisting of a 244nm Argon-ion frequencydoubled laser, air-bearing linear transfer stage and cylindrical lens and mirror setup, is used to precisely control the grating inscription in FCFs. The influence of three factors is systematically investigated to overcome the limitations, and they are the defocusing length between the cylindrical lens and the bare fibre, the rotation geometry of the fibre to the irritation beam, and the relative position of the fibre in the vertical direction of the laser beam.
We have experimentally demonstrated an active loading sensor system based on a fiber ring laser with single-polarization output using an intra-cavity 45°-tilted fiber grating (45°-TFG). When the laser cavity fiber subjected to loading, the laser output is encoded with the load and can be measured and monitored by a power metre. A loading sensitivity as high as 0.033/ (kg•m-1) has been achieved using this laser. The experiment results clearly show that single polarization fiber laser may be developed to a low-cost high-sensitivity loading sensor system.
Cardiovascular health of the human population is a major concern for medical clinicians, with cardiovascular diseases responsible for 48% of all deaths worldwide, according to the World Health Organisation. Therefore the development of new practicable and economical diagnostic tools to scrutinise the cardiovascular health of humans is a major driver for clinicians. We offer a new technique to obtain seismocardiographic signals covering both ballistocardiography (below 20Hz) and audible heart sounds (20Hz upwards). The detection scheme is based upon an array of curvature/displacement sensors using fibre optic long period gratings interrogated using a variation of the derivative spectroscopy interrogation technique
A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed
broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was
measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 μJ with a pulse width of
1.68 μs and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of
2.971 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 μm region SESAM based Q-switched fiber laser with the
highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched
fluoride fiber lasers.