Semiconductor-based photodetectors have received wide attention. Traditional photodetectors are based on electrical test methods, which inevitably disturbed by dark current noise. In order to overcome this problem, this paper proposes an all-optical photodetection scheme based on a microfiber/SiC-nanowire directional coupling structure, which directly utilizes the refractive index change of SiC nanowire caused by photogenerated carriers instead of the change of photocurrent. The device is fabricated by transferring a single SiC nanowire to a microfiber with diameter of about 1 μm by microscopic operating system. When the device is irradiated by a 266 nm deep ultraviolet laser, its light detection sensitivity reaches up to 103 pm/(W/cm2).
Gas pressure sensor based on an antiresonant reflecting guidance mechanism in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) with an open microchannel is experimentally demonstrated. The microchannel is created on the ring cladding of the HCF by femtosecond laser to provide an aircore pressure equivalent to the external pressure. The HCF cladding functions as an antiresonant reflecting waveguide, which induces sharp periodic losses in its transmission spectrum. The proposed sensor is miniature, robust, and exhibits a high pressure sensitivity of 3.592 nm/MPa, a low temperature cross-sensitivity of 7.5 kPa/°C.
Negative-index fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were fabricated using 800 nm femtosecond laser overexposure and thermal regeneration. A positive-index type I-IR FBG was first inscribed in H2-free fiber with a uniform phase mask, and then a highly polarization dependent phase-shifted FBG (PSFBG) was created from the type I-IR FBG by overexposure. Subsequently, the PSFBG was annealed at 800 °C for 12 hours. A negative-index FBG was obtained with a reflectivity of 99.22%, an insertion loss of 0.08 dB, a blue-shift of 0.83 nm, and an operating temperature of up to 1000 °C.
A Graphene Oxide (GO) modified surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on the silver-coated side-polished fiber was demonstrated. Stable GO aqueous dispersion was prepared through sonication, confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectrum and Tyndall effect. GO nanosheets were decorated on the Octadecanethiol (ODT)-silver sensor surface, where ODT act as a link between the silver and GO nano-films. The GO decoration process was in-situ monitored by SPR wavelength interrogation method. The proposed SPR fiber sensor show a refractive index sensitivity up to 2252.0 nm/RIU in the range of 1.30 ∼ 1.40 RIU and can be used as promising candidate in biosensing.
In this paper, an egg-shaped microbubble is proposed and analyzed firstly, which is fabricated by the pressure-assisted arc discharge technique. By tailoring the arc parameters and the position of glass tube during the fabrication process, the thinnest wall of the fabricated microbubble could reach to the level of 873nm. Then, the fiber Fabry–Perot interference technique is used to analyze the deformation of microbubble that under different filling pressures. It is found that the endface of micro-bubble occurs compression when the inner pressure increasing from 4Kpa to 1400KPa. And the pressure sensitivity of such egg-shaped microbubble sample is14.3pm/Kpa. Results of this study could be good reference for developing new pressure sensors, etc.
A fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on an inner air-cavity is presented for high-pressure measurement.
The inner air-cavity is fabricated by use of femtosecond laser micromachining together with fusion splicing technique.
A micro-channel is created on the top of the inner air-cavity to allow the high pressure gas to flow in. The fiber in-line
device is featured with miniature size, good robustness and excellent operation stability while exhibiting a high pressure
sensitivity of 8,239 pm/MPa.
This paper reports a new silica fiber-tip Fabry-Perot interferometer with thin film and large surface area characteristic for high pressure and vacuum degree detection simultaneously, which is fabricated by etching a flat fiber tip into concave surface firstly, with subsequent arc jointing the concave fiber into a inline Fabry-Perot cavity, then drawing one surface of the F-P cavity into several micrometers scale by arc discharge and finally etching the surface into sub-micrometer scale integrally. As the silica fiber-tip Fabry-Perot interferometer film thickness could be tailored very thinly by HF acid solution, plus the surface area of thin film could be expanded during the chemical etching process, the variation of the bubble cavity length is very sensitive to the inner/outer pressure difference of the fiber-tip Fabry-Perot interferometer. Experimental result shows an high sensitivity of 780nm/MPa is feasible. Such configuration has the advantages of lowcost, ease of fabrication and compact size, which make it a promising candidate for pressure and vacuum measurement.
We reported a few high-sensitivity optical strain sensors based on different types of in-fiber FPIs with air bubble cavities those were fabricated by use of a commercial fusion splicer. The cavity length and the shape of air bubbles were investigated to enhance its tensile strain sensitivity. A FPI based on a spherical air bubble was demonstrated by splicing together two sections of standard single-mode fibers, and the spherical air bubble was reshaped into an elliptical air bubble by mean of repeating arc discharge, so the strain sensitivity of the FPI based on an elliptical air bubble was enhanced to 6.0 pm⁄με owe to the decrease of the air cavity length. Moreover, a unique FPI based on a rectangular air bubble was demonstrated by use of an improved technique for splicing two sections of standard single mode fibers together and tapering the splicing joint. The sensitivity of the rectangular-bubble-based strain sensor was enhanced to be up to 43.0 pm/με and is the highest strain sensitivity among the in-fiber FPI-based strain sensors with air bubble cavities reported so far. The reason for this is that the rectangular air bubble has a sharply taper and a thin wall with a thickness of about 1 μm. Moreover, those strain sensors above have a very low temperature sensitivity of about 2.0 pm/oC. Thus, the temperature-induced strain measurement error is less than 0.046 με/oC.
We investigated experimentally liquid crystal (LC) filled photonic crystal fiber’s temperature responses at different temperature ranging from 30 to 80°C. Experimental evidences presented that the LC’s clearing point temperature was 58°C, which is consistent with the theoretical given value. The bandgap transmission was found to have opposite temperature responses lower and higher than the LC’s clearing point temperature owing to its phase transition property. A high bandgap tuning sensitivity of 105 nm/°C was achieved around LC’s clearing point temperature.
We demonstrated an ultrasensitive temperature sensor based on a unique fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The FPI was created by means of splicing a mercury-filled silica tube with a single-mode fiber (SMF). The FPI had an air cavity, which was formed by the end face of the SMF and that of the mercury column. Experimental results showed that the FPI had an ultrahigh temperature-sensitivity of up to -41 nm/°C, which was about one order of magnitude higher than those of the reported FPI-based fiber tip sensors. Such a FPI temperature sensor is expected to have potential applications for highly-sensitive ambient temperature sensing.
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated four kinds of high-sensitivity gas pressure sensors based on in-fiber devices, including a sub-micron silica diaphragm-based fiber-tip, a polymer-capped Fabry-Perot interferometer, an inflated long period fiber grating and a twin core fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which have sensitivities of 1036, 1130, 1680, 9600 pm/MPa, respectively.
We demonstrated a high-sensitivity strain sensor based on an in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer with an air cavity whose was created by splicing together two sections of standard single mode fibers. The sensitivity of this strain sensor was enhanced to 6.02 pm/με by improving the cavity length of the Fabry-Perot interferometer by means of repeating arc discharges for reshaping the air cavity. Moreover, such a strain sensor has a very low temperature sensitivity of 1.06 pm/°C, which reduces the cross-sensitivity problem between tensile strain and temperature.
We present a new type of phase-shifted FBGs based on an in-grating bubble fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation together with fusion splicing technique. A micro-channel vertically crossing the bubble is drilled by femtosecond laser to allow liquid to flow in or out. By filling different refractive index liquid into the bubble, the phase-shift peak is found to experience a linear red shift with the increase of refractive index. Such a PS-FBG could be used to develop a promising tunable optical filter and sensor.
An improved arc discharge technique was demonstrated to inscribe high-quality LPFGs with a resonant attenuation of - 28 dB and an insertion loss of 0.2 dB by use of a commercial fusion splicer. Such a technique avoids the influence of the mass which is prerequisite for traditional technique. Moreover, no physical deformation was observed on the LPFG surface. Compared with more than 86 grating periods required by traditional arc discharge technique, only 27 grating periods were required to inscribe a compact LPFG by our improved arc discharge technique.
Microstructured optical fibers are usually divided into two different types of fibers: solid-core photonic crystal fibers and air-core photonic bandgaps fibers. This paper presents long period fiber gratings written in both solid-core PCFs and aircore PBGs by use of a CO2 laser. A sensitive stain sensor was demonstrated by use of a CO2-laser-written long period fiber grating in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber. An in-fiber polarizer based on a long period fiber grating was written by use of a focused CO2 laser beam to notch periodically on a solid-core photonic crystal fiber. Moreover, a novel long period fiber grating was written in air-core photonic bandgap fibers by use of a CO2 laser periodically collapse air holes in the fiber cladding.
A novel intensity-modulated strain sensor based on a fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed and demonstrated, which is constructed by splicing a thin core fiber between two single mode fibers with a core offset. Such an interferometer exhibits a large fringe visibility of more than 15 dB. When used in axial strain sensing from 0 to 400 με, the interferometer operates at intensity mode of detection with a high sensitivity of -0.023 dB/μεwithout the cross sensitivity between temperature and strain. Its ease of fabrication, high strain sensitivity and intensity mode of detection makes it a low-cost alternative to existing sensing applications.
We demonstrate a miniaturized fiber in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer high-temperature sensor based on inner aircavity adjacent to the fiber core, fabricated by femto-second laser micromachining and fusion splicing technique. Such a device is robust and insensitive to ambient refractive index change, with high temperature sensitivity of ~43.2 pm/°C, up to 1000°C,while exhibiting low cross-sensitivity to strain.
A novel bio-detecting chip configuration based on the fiber surface plasmon enhancement mechanism is proposed and analyzed. Our improvement is proposing to couple the specialized shell-isolated gold nanoparticles into the sensing region of the opened fiber-integrated microfluidic chip, and achieving drastic surface plasmon enhancement by employing the guided optical mode. Simulation shows that the optical intensity distribution near the surface of exposed fiber hole is enhanced drastically, which could be beneficial to the fluorescence or Raman enhancement. Our work could contribute to searching novel microfluidic chip based bio-detecting methods such as for tracing poisonous and harmful substances detection.
A fiber in-line Michelson interferometer based on open micro-cavity is demonstrated, which is fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and thin film coating technique. In refractive index sensing, this interferometer operates in a reflection mode of detection, exhibits compact sensor head, good mechanical reliability, wide operation range and high sensitivity of 975nm/RIU (refractive index unit) at the refractive index value of 1.484.
A selective-filling technique was demonstrated to improve the optical properties of photonic crystal fibres (PCFs). Such a technique can be used to fill one or more fluid samples selectively into desired air holes. The technique is based on drilling a hole or carving a groove on the surface of a PCF to expose selected air holes to atmosphere by the use of a micromachining system comprising of a femtosecond infrared laser and a microscope. The exposed section was immersed into a fluid and the air holes are then filled through the well-known capillarity action. Provided two or more grooves are fabricated on different locations and different orientation along the fibre surface, different fluids may be filled into different airholes to form a hybrid fibre. As an example, we filled half of a pure-silica PCF by a fluid with n=1.480 by carving a rectangular groove on the fibre. Consequently, the half-filled PCF became a bandgap-guiding structure (upper half), resulted from a higher refractive index in the fluid rods than in the fibre core, and three bandgaps were observed within the wavelength range from 600 to 1700 nm. Whereas, the lower half (unfilled holes) of the fibre remains an air/silica index-guiding structure. When the hybrid PCF is bent, its bandgaps gradually narrowed, resulted from the shifts of the bandgap edges. The bandgap edges had distinct bend-sensitivities when the hybrid PCF was bent toward different directions. Especially, the bandgaps are hardly affected when the half-filled PCF was bent toward the fluid-filled region. Such unique bend properties could be used to monitor simultaneously the bend directions and the curvature of the engineering structures.
In this paper, a simple, compact and robust refractive index sensor has been developed, which is constructed by
twisting a pair of silica microfiber to form a coupling device. The transmission spectrum of the device is highly sensitive
to the surrounding refractive index and the highest sensitivity of -1665nm/RIU (refractive index unit) can be obtained at
the refractive index value of 1.3605 for the fibers with diameter of 2.1μm. The developed sensor device is easy to
construct, of low cost and compatible with optical fiber system.
By use of femtosecond laser assisted micro-machining, a novel kind of fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer is
fabricated through selective infiltrating of the solid core photonic crystal fiber. Two adjacent air holes of the innermost
layer are infiltrated of liquid with refractive index higher than that of the background silica. Theoretical analysis shows
that fundamental and higher order rod modes can be excited and interference can occur between the rod modes and the
fiber core mode. The temperature sensitivity of the device is measured to be -10.9 nm/ºC, which corresponds to a
refractive index sensitivity of 2.7x104 nm/RIU.
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is fabricated in the microfiber by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Such a grating
can be directly exposed to the surrounding medium without etching or thinning treatment of the fiber, thus possessing
high refractive index sensitivity while maintaining superior reliability. The FBG was successfully inscribed on the
tapered fiber with diameters ringing from 2 to 10 μm. Such a grating has high potential in various types of optical fiber
We propose an ultra compact optical fiber sensor integrating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in fiber Bragg
grating (FBG) for simultaneous refractive index (RI) and temperature measurement. By use of the resonant wavelength
of the FBG and the interference dip of the MZI, the RI and temperature of the surrounding medium can be
unambiguously determined. The interesting properties of the sensor include good operation linearity, extremely high RI
sensitivity up to ~9148 nm/RIU (RI unit) in the RI range between 1.30 and 1.325 and precise sensing location,
determined by the MZI cavity created.