Advances in medical imaging technologies have led to the generation of large databases with high-resolution image volumes. To retrieve images with pathology similar to the one under examination, we propose a content- based image retrieval framework (CBIR) for medical image retrieval using deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). We present retrieval results for medical images using a pre-trained neural network, ResNet-18. A multi- modality dataset that contains twenty-three classes and four modalities including (Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Mammogram (MG), and Positron Emission Tomograph (PET)) are used for demonstrating our method. We obtain an average classification accuracy of 92% and the mean average precision of 0.90 for retrieval. The proposed method can assist in clinical diagnosis and training radiologist.
The work explores the use of denoising autoencoders (DAEs) for brain lesion detection, segmentation, and false-positive reduction. Stacked denoising autoencoders (SDAEs) were pretrained using a large number of unlabeled patient volumes and fine-tuned with patches drawn from a limited number of patients (n=20, 40, 65). The results show negligible loss in performance even when SDAE was fine-tuned using 20 labeled patients. Low grade glioma (LGG) segmentation was achieved using a transfer learning approach in which a network pretrained with high grade glioma data was fine-tuned using LGG image patches. The networks were also shown to generalize well and provide good segmentation on unseen BraTS 2013 and BraTS 2015 test data. The manuscript also includes the use of a single layer DAE, referred to as novelty detector (ND). ND was trained to accurately reconstruct nonlesion patches. The reconstruction error maps of test data were used to localize lesions. The error maps were shown to assign unique error distributions to various constituents of the glioma, enabling localization. The ND learns the nonlesion brain accurately as it was also shown to provide good segmentation performance on ischemic brain lesions in images from a different database.
Manual segmentation of brain lesions from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is cumbersome and introduces errors due to inter-rater variability. This paper introduces a semi-supervised technique for detection of brain lesion from MRI using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). GANs comprises of a Generator network and a Discriminator network which are trained simultaneously with the objective of one bettering the other. The networks were trained using non lesion patches (n=13,000) from 4 different MR sequences. The network was trained on BraTS dataset and patches were extracted from regions excluding tumor region. The Generator network generates data by modeling the underlying probability distribution of the training data, (PData). The Discriminator learns the posterior probability P (Label Data) by classifying training data and generated data as “Real” or “Fake” respectively. The Generator upon learning the joint distribution, produces images/patches such that the performance of the Discriminator on them are random, i.e. P (Label Data = GeneratedData) = 0.5. During testing, the Discriminator assigns posterior probability values close to 0.5 for patches from non lesion regions, while patches centered on lesion arise from a different distribution (PLesion) and hence are assigned lower posterior probability value by the Discriminator. On the test set (n=14), the proposed technique achieves whole tumor dice score of 0.69, sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 59%. Additionally the generator network was capable of generating non lesion patches from various MR sequences.